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Articles by Charles Tart

This page is adapted from the contents document ( at Tart's FTP site. Links from this page connect to documents at that site. The most recent version will always be that at the site.


This file, "currentcontents", will be updated regularly as new material is added to this ftp service.

The ascii files on here are electronic reprints (and occasional preprints or lecture transcripts) of journal articles by Charles T. Tart, Professor Emeritus in Psychology of the University of California at Davis, in such areas as altered states of consciousness, hypnosis, sleep, dreaming, meditation, parapsychology, transpersonal psychology, etc.

LATEST REVISION OF THIS FILE: July 10, 1996: first posting, 3/25/94

FILES: (alphabetical order by filename)

[ignore file names in [ ], they are for internal reference only]

"ANALYTICAL-OVERLAY-AND-PSI" - Journal article, 1989.

Abstract: A case study is reported in which the author, a psychologist, began spontaneously saying an unusual word, "coup d'etat" aloud repeatedly, and then received a letter from a Mrs. Coudetat the following day. Several psychological processes which may distort psi impressions or bury them under noise are then dis- cussed with respect to this and other cases, namely "analytical" and "associative" overlay, which may add confusing analytical and associative material and "theoretical overlay", which can bias interpretation of psychological factors. [analovr.asc]

"BOOKS-BY-CTT" - Current availability of published books by Charles T. Tart [cttbooks.asc]

"BOOKS-AND-TAPES-BY-CTT" - Ordering info on in-print books and tapes by Charles T. Tart [cat94.asc]

"card-guessing-learning-or-extinction" - Journal article, 1966, original presentation of method for enhancing ESP ability.

Abstract: "The standard psychological procedure for teaching skilled behavior to an organism (whether human or animal) consists of administering immediate reward when the correct response is emitted by the organism, and/or administering punishment when the incorrect response is emitted. If reward and punishment cannot be clearly associated with correct and incorrect responses by the organism, the desired behavior is not learned or, if already present, is extinguished. An analysis of the typical card guessing test situation in parapsychology suggests that it is an extinction paradigm. Empirical support of this hypothesis is provided by the fact that the scores of even the highest-scoring subjects who have come into the laboratory have finally fallen off to chance in almost all cases, as would be expected if they were subjected to an extinction procedure. This article makes a plea that the basic principles of learning theory be applied to parapsychological tests in an attempt to have subjects learn to use their psi abilities more effectively rather than extinguishing whatever abilities they have." [cardgues.asc]
"CAUSALITY-AND-SYNCHRONICITY" - Journal article, 1981, abstract:

Abstract: Jung's concept of meaningful but acausal events, synchronistic events, has intrigued and confused scientists for decades. For increased clarity, this paper distinguishes several types of causal events from synchronistic ones. Physical causality postulates a physical mechanism to account for meaningful correlations between events, psychological causality a psychological mechanism. Presumed physical causality and presumed psychological causality are categories of faith that puzzling correlations will eventually be explained by straightforward extensions of current knowledge. State-specific causality recognizes the limited and semi arbitrary qualities of our ordinary state of consciousness, as noted in the author's systems approach to consciousness, and the possibility that different cognitive styles in altered states can make puzzling correlations comprehensible and causal while in the altered state. Paranormal causality results when psi abilities (telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, or psychokinesis) cause a correlation between events, although the mechanics of these processes are currently unknown. Being-specific synchronistic causality represents genuinely causal relationships that we are forever unable to satisfactorily grasp because of the inherent limits of human nature. Absolute synchronicity is genuine, meaningful relationship between events that is actually acausal: the category is definable, but may not be empirically useful. [causyn.asc]

"COMPASSION-SCIENCE-SURVIVAL" - Article, 1994, "Compassion, science and consciousness survival" from the Noetic Sciences Review.

Practical advice on care for the dying in the context of a review of scientific evidence for the survival of death in some form of altered state of consciousness. [survive.asc]

"CONSCIOUSNESS-ATHENS" - Consciousness: A Psychological, Transpersonal and Parapsychological Approach. Paper presented at the Third International Symposium on Science and Consciousness, Ancient Olympia, Greece, 4-7 January, 1993. [athens.asc]

"CTT-LECTURES" - Current public lecture and workshop schedule for Charles T. Tart. Updated as needed. [*********]

"DEALING-W-FEAR-OF-PSI" - Journal article, 1984, Abstract:

"Unacknowledged fears of psi can create unconsciously motivated behaviors that inhibit and/or distort the operation of psi in the laboratory. Observations suggest that unacknowledged fear of psi is widespread among parapsychologists, as well as others. The ingenious approaches of K. Batcheldor and J. Isaacs for producing psi may be effective because they bypass fears of psi, but have long-term limitations through not dealing directly with it. A social masking theory of psi inhibition and a primal conflict theory of psi inhibition are discussed, and 10 strategies for dealing with this fear are presented. Denial, avoidance of triggering circumstances, rationalization/distraction, and dissociation/repression strategies all have inherent psychopathological aspects. Desensitization and bypass defenses have healthy as well as psychopathological aspects. Cognitive/affective acknowledgment, learning adaptive coping skills, accepting responsibility, and personal growth strategies are the most desirable ways of handling the problem of the fear of psi." [dealingw.asc]

"EMERGENT-CONSCIOUSNESS" - Book chapter, 1978, a systems understanding of the nature of consciousness and states of consciousness, taking psi phenomena into account. Summary as follows:

"I have proposed the beginnings of a dualistic theory of consciousness, Emergent Interactionism, which is intended to be scientifically useful and has empirical, testable consequences. The existence of psi phenomena, which are paraconceptual for a physicalistic monism, is the basic evidence for a pragmatic dualism, a recognition of the need to understand consciousness in terms of two qualitatively different aspects of reality, what I have called the B system, the brain, body, and nervous system and the physical laws which govern it, and the M/L system, the mental and life aspects of reality. Consciousness is seen as a system property, an emergent from the auto-psi interaction of the B and M/L systems. Ultimate understanding of consciousness, then, while it requires further and extensive development of conventional approaches in the study of brain functioning and physical law, also requires extensive development of our knowledge of psi, as well as development of general systems theory so principles of emergence in complex systems can be better understood. While this view is complex, it is more adequate to the reality of psi than a physicalistic monism, and exciting discoveries await us!" [emeergent.asc]

"EXPERIMENTER-BIAS-IN-HYPNOSIS" - Journal article, Science, 1964.

Abstract. Eight hypnotist-experimenters administered a standardized suggestibility test to subjects under two separate experimental conditions. The experimenters understood the problem of experimenter bias, knew that they were being checked, and felt that they had treated both groups alike, yet judges were able to tell under which condition the subjects were tested by listening to the performances of the experimenters. [ebiasinh.asc]

"FEAR-OF-THE-PARANORMAL" - Journal article, reprinted from "Subtle Energies," 1995. Abstract:

Ostensibly objective scientists frequently show quite irrational and unethical behavior when presented with data about psi (psychic phenomena), the paranormal, subtle energies, and the like. Observations and some research suggests that, in addition to ignorance, semi-consciousness and unacknowledged fears of psi affect their thought and behaviors. Even researchers who advocate the importance of psi sometimes show similar distorted behavior, especially when effect size goes beyond statistically-significant-but- practically-trivial effects and become strong. Such unrecognized and unacknowledged resistance can sabotage both research and application. The researcher is not independent of the research in these areas. This paper focuses on recognizing and dealing with these widespread ambivalences and fears about psi phenomena. [issseem.asc]

"FIVE-MEDITATIONS" - Introduction to and review of an excellent audio tape by meditation teacher Shinzen Young, a pioneer in adapting Eastern meditation techniques for the modern Western mind. [******]

"GAME-OF-GAMES" - Article, 1985, proposing a game format designed to train people to recognize and transcend their own cultural biases. [gamegame.asc]


Career advice for those looking for graduate school training and/or a career in transpersonal psychology, parapsychology, consciousness research or related areas. [gradschl.asc]

"HELP-W-STRANGE-EXPERIENCES" - Info on Spiritual Emergence

Network & other sources of help for those personally stressed with unusual psychic or mystical experiences. [helppsy.asc]

"IMPROVING-ESP" - Journal article, 1980, abstract:

Abstract: The major problem in parapsychological research is the lack of reproducibility of strong manifestations of psi. Research on correlates of psi, when it usually manifests so weakly, is un- likely to be productive. The author's theory that provision of immediate feedback of results might allow learning of stronger and more stable psi behavior will, if true, allow a major break through in parapsychology. In the four years since the publica- tion of data (the first Training Study, TS) supportive of the theory, no laboratory other than the author's has attempted to replicate the procedure, but a voluminous amount of largely speculative criticism of the first TS has been published. Are parapsychologists really interested in producing strong and reliable manifestation of psi?

Kennedy's paper centers on speculations that an apparent ly uniquely successful experimenter might have been incompetent or dishonest. No evidence really supports such speculations, nor do the data support the idea of that experimenter's uniqueness. Some perturbations in the target sequences analyzed by Kennedy are explicable as psychokinetic perturbations of the electronic random generator used, and, in any case, are of very small magni tude compared to the magnitude of psi (sometimes operating more than 10% of the time for the overall experiment, p<10-24, two- tailed) manifested in the first TS. Further experimental work will be more productive than endless speculation. [imprvesp.asc]

" INFORATE-PRECOG-VS-REAL-TIME" - Journal article, 1983, abstract:

Quantification of the amount of information acquired in successful, forced-choice ESP experiments is possible using a measure of the average number of bits per trial. Using this measure, 53 studies of present-time ESP, where the percipient attempted to call currently existing targets, and 32 studies of precognitive ESP, where the percipient attempted to call targets that would only be generated (by a random process) at some later time, were reviewed. A striking and robust performance dif- ference was found: present-time ESP can work up to 10 times as well as precognitive ESP in forced-choice tests. Three theories are proposed to account for this difference: a psychological theory that there are generally held biases against precognition in Western culture, so percipients don't try as hard: a two- process theory that present-time ESP and precognition are two basically different processes, with inherently different charac- teristics: and a temporal-break theory that ESP is a unitary process, but something about the nature of time itself attenuates ESP performance that extends into the future. [inforate.asc]

"J-TRANSPERSONAL-PSYCH-ARTICLES" - Note on what articles of CTT's are available by ordering back issues of the Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Journal will not give permission to post to this ftp area, as sales of back issues are essential for the Journal's survival. [jtpstuff.asc]

"MARIJUANA-INTOXICATION" - Journal article, Nature, 1970, abstract:

As a guide to further experiments, the chief experiential effects of marijuana have been elucidated with the help of a detailed questionnaire given to seasoned marijuana users whose experiences, it seems are almost entirely pleasant. [maritox.asc]

"MARIJUANA-AND-PSI" - Journal article, 1993, abstract as follows:

General social beliefs that are acquired and operate in our ordinary state of consciousness usually deny the reality of psychic phenomena and thereby probably inhibit psychic functioning. Anecdotal reports, however, suggest that ostensibly paranormal phenomena often occur in association with altered states of consciousness. This study focuses on the altered state of marijuana intoxication. A questionnaire study of 150 experienced marijuana users found that 76% believed in ESP, with frequent reports of experiences while intoxicated that were interpreted as psychic. Sixty nine percent reported that they had experienced telepathy while intoxicated, 32% reported precognition and 13% reported psychokinesis. Fifty percent had experienced seeing auras around people and 44% reported out-of-the-body experiences. These findings suggest that marijuana, used under the proper psychological conditions, might facilitate the manifestation of psi. No studies are known in which ESP performance was tested under laboratory conditions while percipients were intoxicated with marijuana, but a 1975 study (Tart, 1975; 1976) found a positive correlation between laboratory ESP scoring and frequency of marijuana use outside the laboratory in a student population. This study also found a negative correlation between ESP scoring and frequency of alcohol use in everyday life. A 1977 laboratory study (Tart, 1977) failed to confirm these findings. Differences between the studies are discussed, as is the importance of the ostensible paranormality of various experiences associated with marijuana intoxication on belief systems, irregardless of whether such experiences are actually paranormal. [marpsi.asc]

"MIND-EMBODIED-VIRTUAL-REALITY" - Book chapter, 1993, extension of ideas on using computer-generated virtual reality as a model for the mind. Full title is "Mind Embodied! Computer-Generated Virtual Reality as a New, Dualistic-Interactive Model for Transpersonal Psychology." [mindembo.asc]

"MINDFULNESS-EXTENSION-IN-RETREAT" - unpublished paper by James Baraz, Buddhist meditation teacher, and CTT, titled "Initial application of mindfulness extension exercises in a traditional Buddhist meditation retreat setting," abstract as follows:

Abstract: The cultivation of mindfulness, clear moment-to-moment awareness of what is actually happening, as opposed to the typical distortions of perception caused by desires, fears, attachments and other psychological defense mechanisms so characteristic of ordinary consciousness, is an essential element in personal and spiritual growth. Spiritual traditions such as Buddhism have developed sophisticated methodologies for developing mindfulness in specialized retreat situations, but the mindfulness and concentration often experienced therein does not generalize well to daily life situations. Some principles of generalizing mindfulness to daily life were used to design specific exercises that were tested in two otherwise traditional Buddhist vipassana ("mindfulness") meditation retreats. The exercises and their results are described. They proved useful in widening the scope of mindfulness, easing reentry into ordinary life and enhancing the transfer of mindfulness to daily life. [baraz.asc]

"OLYMPIA-DECLARATION" - formal declaration of importance of consciousness studies if the world is to survive, promulgated by 100+ scientists at a 1993 conference near Olympia, Greece. [olympia.asc]

"ON-LINE-TEACHING" - 1995 report of pros and cons of teaching an online course at the graduate school level, dealing with altered states of consciousness. Report made to the faculty of the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, Palo Alto, California, including course syllabus. [onlntch.asc]

"OUT-OF-BODY-METHODOLOGICAL-PROBLEMS-IN-STUDYING" - Paper from "Research in Parapsychology 1973," discusses different types of OOB experiences that need to be discriminated for future research to be fruitful. [obemethp.txt]

~ miss-z"> "OUT-OF-BODY ~ MISS-Z" - Journal article, 1968. Abstract:

A young woman who frequently had spontaneous out body experiences was studied in a sleep laboratory for four nights. She reported several partially out experiences and two full ones. While the physiological data are limited by dependence on her retrospective report in correlating physiological pattern with the experience, it seems as if her out experiences occurred in conjunction with a non-dreaming, non-awake brain wave stage characterized by predominant slowed alpha activity from her brain and no activation of the autonomic nervous system. Two incidents occurring in the laboratory provide suggestive evidence that the out of-the-body experiences had parapsychological concomitants . [missz.asc]

~ monroe"> "OUT-OF-BODY ~ MONROE" - Journal article, 1967, reporting on EEG studies of Robert A. Monroe, who later became internationally known for his books on his out-of-the-body experiences. Partial sucess in having OBEs in the laboratory were accompanied by interesting EEG changes. [monroe.asc]

"OTHER-WORLDS" - Article from "Research in Parapsychology 1986."

Some people have such stable out-of-body experiences to particular locales that they attribute an independent existence to them, rather than considering them merely subjective. This paper discusses how we could investigate such claims. [otherw.asc]

"PARAPSYCHOLOGY-FAQ" - gives web address of an excellent FAQ on scientific parapsychology prepared by leaders in the field.

The address is:

"PHYSIOLOGICAL-CORRELATES-OF-PSI" - Journal article, 1963.

Summary: "In individual sessions, eleven college students sat in a soundproof chamber and tried to guess when "subliminal stimuli" were presented. At random intervals either: (a) an agent in another soundproof room was electrically shocked; or (b) the shock was delivered to a resistor. The subjects' skin resistances, finger pulse volumes, and EEGs were continuously recorded, and the EEGs were electronically analyzed.

The physiological responses of the subjects were significantly related to the occurrence of both types of events, showing a pattern for the group generally indicative of a higher level of activation during the trials, viz.: (a) a faster and more complex EEG pattern; (b) more frequent galvanic skin responses; and (c) more frequent changes in finger pulse volume. As the subjects' conscious guesses of when trials had occurred did not differ from chance, they may be said to have responded on an "unconscious" level." [physcorr.asc]


Abstract: With the increasing use of immediate feedback of target identity in parapsychological research, the question of departures from randomicity (equiprobability and serial independence) in target generators becomes important, as it is possible that some percipients might identify such departures and develop a mathematical inference strategy for predicting targets, thus artifactually inflating their scores. The key aspect of randomicity of relevance is not lack of pattern per se, but the predictability of the generator. It is shown that standard Chi-square tests of randomicity are poor measures of predictability in short to moderate length experiments. A direct approach to the predictability of a possibly biased target source has been developed, the 'Probabilistic Predictor Program' (PPP), which is probably much more powerful than most human percipients could be. The operation of the PPP is described in detail. The PPP is then applied to both the target and response data of Tart's first Training Study, where some small departures from randomicity were found in the electronically generated target sequences and, of course, in the percipient generated response sequences. The PPP was found to occasionally score significantly on the target sequences, but far less successfully than the actual percipients did. The more biased response sequences were predicted quite significantly by the PPP. Examination of the internal displacement scoring patterns of the PPP was also compared with the patterns of the actual percipients and found to be drastically different. For these two reasons, it was concluded that use of mathematical inference strategies of the PPP sort could have only accounted for a trivial portion of the extremely high target scoring of the percipient S in the first Training Study. While we should normally strive for completely random target sequences, the PPP is offered as a powerful approach to the question of predictability when departures from randomicity do occur, and can be of use in working with other experimental data. [ppp.asc]

"PSI-FUNCTION-AND-ASC" - Book chapter, "Psi Functioning and

Altered States of Consciousness," with a systems theoretical approach to understanding the nature of altered states and discussion of why this might facilitate psychic functioning. [psi&asc.asc]

"PSYCHICS-FEARS-OF-PSYCHIC-POWERS" - 1986 journal article,

Abstract: Preliminary research suggests that ordinary people, as well as parapsychologists, may have pre- or unconscious fears of psi that affect their thinking about and reactions to it. What about people who are very heavily involved with psi in their daily lives, that is, psychics? This paper surveys the fears and ambivalences about psi of people who have worked on becoming psychic in the context of an interest in personal growth. Fears expressed focus on the unknown quality to which psi opens one, loss of control, giving power to others to validate or invalidate one, confusion resulting from malicious invalidation, distortions of self and psychic functioning resulting from the need to please, forced self-changes, succumbing to others' emotions, lack of criteria for validation of unusual experiences, maladaptive loss of ordinary fears, fear of success, isolation resulting from an inability to communicate, invalidation of conventional work ethic values, frightening others, becoming ill from taking on others' problems, and problems in handling new sorts of power. [psychfea.asc]

"PURE-CLAIRVOYANCE" - Journal article, 1985.

Abstract: An alternative explanation of ostensible clairvoyance has been that percipients precognize the future state of their brain when they receive feedback about the target order. Older studies of pure clairvoyance, where this possibility is eliminated, suggest that clairvoyance exists, but these studies have some methodological problems. In this investigation, a computer tested clairvoyance (guessing numbers 1-10) with and without feedback. Totals were recorded in the pure clairvoyance condition only, so there could be no future inspection of target orders by anyone. Percipients with no previous history of success in laboratory psi tasks showed no results, but three talented percipients showed success in the pure clairvoyance task in accordance with their known beliefs, viz., significant psi-hitting by the percipient who accepted pure clairvoyance and significant psi-missing by the two who did not accept it. [pclairnf.asc]

"REV-TIBETAN-BOOK-LIVING-DYING" - Review of Sogyal Rinpoche's book, "The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying," a book that is ground breaking both in providing Westerners with intellectual knowledge of Tibetan Buddhist ideas about death, dying, and the after-death state, and full of compassionate and practical advice for helping the dying, whether they are Buddhist, Christian, atheist or agnostic. [tbld.asc]

"ROBERT-A-MONROE" - Robert A. Monroe, who honestly described his out-of-the body experiences in three books ("Journeys Out of the Body," "Far Journeys," and "Ultimate Journey" helped tens of thousands of people cope with their unusual experiences. This is a personal eulogy on the occasion of his death. [ram.asc]

"SCIENCE-SOURCES-OF-VALUE" - journal article, 1979

Abstract: While values may be conditioned by known psychological techniques, such values are mechanical, relative, and may yield readily under stress. Mankind's deepest values have sprung from the direct experiences of the founders of various religions, experiences occurring in discrete altered states of consciousness (d-ASCs). However the subsequent adaptation of these experiences to cultures and religions-as-social-institutions makes them relatively ineffective unless there are technologies for experiential reaffirmation of such values.

Values formed from d-ASC experiences are extremely powerful, yet our scientific understanding of d-ASCs is still very fragmented and poor. To acquire an adequate understanding of d-ASCs and the "mystical" and value experiences resulting from them requires a large expansion of conventional research, but, even more importantly, it requires the development of state-specific sciences, the practice of scientific method by investigators who are experiencing the d-ASCs themselves. The development of such sciences will provide the ground-work of an adequate understanding that in turn can lead to practical implementation by creating deep value experiences such as the unity of life and an ecological ethic, values which will be powerful because they are based on deep personal experience rather than being shoulds that are taught externally. Practical problems of such implementation are also discussed. [sci&val.asc]

"SPACE-TIME-AND-MIND" - Presidential address to Parapsychological Association, 1977, discussing discovery on an information processing mechanism, "trans-temporal inhibition," analogous to lateral inhi- bition in neural processing and contrast enhancement in computer graphics, that facilitates the functioning of ESP. [space.asc]

"STATE-SPECIFIC-SCIENCES" - Originally published in "Science," 1972, Vol. 176, pp. 1203-1210 as States of Consciousness and State- Specific Sciences.

Describes the nature of altered states of consciousness (ASCs) in general and the basic nature of scientific method, and proposes that an adequate scientific understanding of consciousness must be a multi-state, multi-perspectival understanding. In addition to working to understand some altered state in our ordinary, so-called "normal" state, researchers must learn to enter and stabilize various altered states and conduct observation, experimentation, and theorizing in those states in order to broaden ordinary perspective with the state-specific perceptions, styles of thinking, and styles of observation only available in ASCs. [sss.asc]

"TRAINING-OF-PSI-INTERNAL-PROCESSES" - journal article, 1977,

Abstract: To achieve conscious control of psi, a motivated, active participant in a repeated-calling psi test must learn to scan and categorize the contents of his experiential field on each trial before making a response. If immediate feedback as to the correct target is then provided, he can form hypotheses as to which aspects of his experiential field (operating signals) are associated with correct psi responses and what sorts of control strategies are likely to produce useful operating signals. Immediate feedback allows testing and refinement of these hypotheses. The common decline effect in psi performance is seen as caused by the confusion resulting from lack of immediate feedback in most earlier studies. Conscious control of psi would eventually involve recognition by the person of momentary operating signals associated with success, such that he would go ahead and respond, and/or recognition of operating signals (or lack of them) associated with failure, such that he would not respond, but would wait for or induce a change in his internal condition that was associated with success. Various factors affecting immediate feedback training are discussed. [intproc.asc]

"TRANSPERSONAL-PSYCHOLOGY-STATE-OF-THE-ART-1996" Lecture from the 1996 meeting of the Association for Transpersonal Psychology annual meeting at Asilomar, California, assessing the state of the art and focusing on the need to learn enough to about individual differences to adequately prescribe effective spiritual paths for people.

"TRANSPERSONAL-REALITIES?" - Text of Invited Address to the American Psychological Association, 1978, with the full title "Transpersonal Realities or Neurophysiological Illusions: Toward an Empirically Testable Dualism." Abstract as follows:

Transpersonal experiences, in which a person seems to go beyond (trans) the limits of his body and mind, are exceptionally important to their experiencers, and can form the basis of religions and philosophies, yet the current scientific position that totally equates consciousness with brain functioning automatically views the content of these vital experiences as illusions and delusions. Transpersonal psychology is thus reduced to the study of hallucinations. More than 600 experiments, however, provide first-class scientific evidence for the existence of paraconceptual phenomena such as extrasensory perception (ESP), phenomena that cannot be explained in terms of brain processes and which argue that some aspects of consciousness are of a qualitatively different nature than physical processes. This paper presents a theory of Emergent Interactionism, in which consciousness is seen as an emergent systems product of two qualitatively different systems, the brain or B system on the one hand, and the mind/life or M\L system on the other. Psi phenomena, ESP and psychokinesis (PK) are the mechanism of interaction between the B and M\L systems. Thus psi phenomena are seen as common within a person, it is only their manifestation outside the body to produce information about distant events in the world that is unusual. In contrast to philosophical theories of dualism, Emergent Interactionism has testable consequences, and so it is proposed as a scientific theory rather than a philosophy. From this point of view, transpersonal experiences, rather than necessarily being illusory, may be valid and important insights into the nature of human consciousness. [tranrel.asc]


Abstract: A new technological model of consciousness is that of computer-generated virtual reality. By wearing goggles containing color TV sets and earphones, a computer can control a person's main sensory input, coordinating it with actual body movements tracked by sensors, giving the "traveler" a virtual body that can interact with virtual objects. More than one person can enter the same virtual reality and interact with other travelers there. Given psychological identification, a virtual reality can quickly become an almost total reality. Developing applications, such as those in architecture, are discussed. Contemporary neurology and psychology show that we already live in one or more internal virtual realities, generated by neurological and psychological processes. Stable patterns, stabilized systems of these internal virtual realities, constitute states of consciousness, our ordinary personality, and multiple personalities. Computer-generated virtual realities offer intriguing possibilities for developing diagnostic, inductive, psychotherapeutic and training techniques that can extend and supplement current ones. [multiple.asc]

"VITA" - Curriculum Vitae for Charles T. Tart. [vita.asc]